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FODMAPS

Updated: Jul 1, 2020

FODMAPS are fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols. These are short-chain carbohydrates and sugar alcohols that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine. Therefore they are fermented by colonic bacteria and can cause symptoms of bloating, gas, abdominal pain, constipation and diarrhea (IBS.)

FODMAPS are naturally found in foods.

Examples of FODMAPS are: fructose (fruits and veggies,) fructans (veggies and grains,) lactose (dairy,) galactans (legumes,) and polyols (sugar alcohols) like xylitol, mannitol and sorbitol.

Many FODMAPS are healthy, high antioxidant foods. For example, garlic and onions are very medicinal and have tremendous health properties. However, they are two high FODMAP foods that can cause major digestive discomfort and bloating/gas.

Therefore these two and other high FODMAP foods should be reduced or eliminated in cases where symptoms flare up to give the gut a chance to heal. Sometimes some of them can be cooked to reduce the severity of symptoms.

If you are someone who deals with postprandial gas, bloating and gastrointestinal discomfort, it may be worth trying a low FODMAP diet for 1-2 months. Afterwards, you can try slowly adding previously restricted foods back in to see if there is any sort of reaction. This elimination type approach can be very beneficial to providing answers to the digestive symptoms you may be experiencing.

*Digestive enzymes can further aid nutrient assimilation while reducing symptoms of bloating and GI discomfort.

References:

https://www.medicinenet.com/low_fodmap_diet_list_of_foods_to_eat_and_avoid/article.htm

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31802437/


High FODMAP food (things to avoid / reduce)

Vegetables and Legumes

Garlic – avoid entirely if possible

Includes garlic salt, garlic powder

Onions – avoid entirely if possible

Includes onion powder, small pickled onions Try Hing / Asafoetida powder or garlic oil to substitute

Artichoke

Asparagus

Baked beans

Beetroot, fresh

Black eyed peas

Broad beans

Butter beans

Cassava

Cauliflower

Celery – greater than 5cm of stalk

Choko

Falafel

Fermented cabbage e.g. sauerkraut

Haricot beans

Kidney beans

Lima beans

Leek bulb

Mange Tout

Mixed vegetables

Mung beans

Mushrooms

Peas, sugar snap

Pickled vegetables

Red kidney beans

Savoy Cabbage

Soy beans / soya beans

Split peas

Scallions / spring onions (bulb / white part)

Shallots

Taro

Fruit – fruits can contain high fructose

Apples including pink lady and granny smith

Apricots

Avocado

Bananas, ripe

Blackberries

Blackcurrants

Boysenberry

Cherries

Currants

Custard apple

Dates

Feijoa

Figs

Goji berries

Grapefruit

Guava, unripe

Lychee

Mango

Nectarines

Paw paw, dried

Peaches

Pears

Persimmon

Pineapple, dried

Plums

Pomegranate

Prunes

Raisins

Sea buckthorns

Sultanas

Tamarillo

Tinned fruit in apple / pear juice

Watermelon

Meats, Poultry and Meat Substitutes

Chorizo

Sausages

Cereals, Grains, Breads, Biscuits/Cookies, Pasta, Nuts and Cakes

Wheat containing products such as (be sure to check labels):

Biscuits / cookies including chocolate chip cookies

Bread, wheat – over 1 slice

Breadcrumbs

Cakes

Cereal bar, wheat based

Croissants

Crumpets

Egg noodles

Muffins

Pastries

Pasta, wheat over 1/2 cup cooked

Udon noodles

Wheat bran

Wheat cereals

Wheat flour

Wheat germ

Wheat noodles

Wheat rolls

Almond meal

Amaranth flour

Barley including flour

Bran cereals

Bread:

Granary bread

Multigrain bread

Naan

Oatmeal bread

Pumpernickel bread

Roti

Sourdough with kamut

Cashews

Chestnut flour

Cous cous

Einkorn flour

Freekeh

Gnocchi

Granola bar

Muesli cereal

Muesli bar

Pistachios

Rye

Rye crispbread

Semolina

Spelt flour

OPEN

Condiments, Dips, Sweets, Sweeteners and Spreads

Agave

Caviar dip

Fructose

Fruit bar

Gravy, if it contains onion

High fructose corn syrup (HFCS)

Hummus / houmous

Honey

Jam, mixed berries

Jam, strawberry, if contains HFCS

Molasses

Pesto sauce

Quince paste

Relish / vegetable pickle

Stock cubes

Sugar free sweets containing polyols – usually ending in -ol or isomalt

Sweeteners and corresponding E number:

Inulin

Isomalt (E953 / 953)

Lactitol (E966 / 966)

Maltitol (E965 / 965)

Mannitol (E241 / 421)

Sorbitol (E420 / 420)

Xylitol (E967 / 967)

Tahini paste

Tzatziki dip

Prebiotic Foods

The follow items may be hiding in yoghurts, snack bars etc:

FOS – fructooligosaccharides

Inulin

Oligofructose

Drinks and Protein Powders

Beer – if drinking more than one bottle

Coconut water

Cordial, apple and raspberry with 50-100% real juice

Cordial, orange with 25-50% real juice

Fruit and herbal teas with apple added

Fruit juices in large quantities

Fruit juices made of apple, pear, mango

Kombucha

Malted chocolate flavored drink

Meal replacement drinks containing milk based products e.g. Ensure, Slim Fast

Orange juice in quantities over 100ml

Quinoa milk

Rum

Sodas containing High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)

Soy milk made with soy beans – commonly found in USA

Sports drinks

Tea:

Black tea with added soy milk

Chai tea, strong

Dandelion tea, strong

Fennel tea

Chamomile tea

Herbal tea, strong

Oolong tea

Wine – if drinking more than one glass

Whey protein, concentrate unless lactose free

Whey protein, hydrolyzed unless lactose free

Dairy Foods

Buttermilk

Cheese, cream

Cheese, Halmoumi

Cheese, ricotta

Cream

Custard

Gelato

Ice cream

Kefir

Milk:

Cow milk

Goat milk

Evaporated milk

Sheep’s milk

Sour cream

Yoghurt

Cooking ingredients

Carob powder


Low FODMAP food (good to eat food)

If quantities are given these are the highest amount allowed

A great source of ready made and flavorful low FODMAP sauces, oils and snacks is FODY Foods.

For a list of FODMAP free foods see the FODMAP stacking and FODMAP Free Foods page.

Vegetables and Legumes

Alfalfa

Bamboo shoots

Bean sprouts

Beetroot, canned and pickled

Black beans – 1/4 cup / 45g

Bok choy / pak choi