Search

FODMAPS

Updated: Jul 1

FODMAPS are fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols. These are short-chain carbohydrates and sugar alcohols that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine. Therefore they are fermented by colonic bacteria and can cause symptoms of bloating, gas, abdominal pain, constipation and diarrhea (IBS.)

FODMAPS are naturally found in foods.

Examples of FODMAPS are: fructose (fruits and veggies,) fructans (veggies and grains,) lactose (dairy,) galactans (legumes,) and polyols (sugar alcohols) like xylitol, mannitol and sorbitol.

Many FODMAPS are healthy, high antioxidant foods. For example, garlic and onions are very medicinal and have tremendous health properties. However, they are two high FODMAP foods that can cause major digestive discomfort and bloating/gas.

Therefore these two and other high FODMAP foods should be reduced or eliminated in cases where symptoms flare up to give the gut a chance to heal. Sometimes some of them can be cooked to reduce the severity of symptoms.

If you are someone who deals with postprandial gas, bloating and gastrointestinal discomfort, it may be worth trying a low FODMAP diet for 1-2 months. Afterwards, you can try slowly adding previously restricted foods back in to see if there is any sort of reaction. This elimination type approach can be very beneficial to providing answers to the digestive symptoms you may be experiencing.

*Digestive enzymes can further aid nutrient assimilation while reducing symptoms of bloating and GI discomfort.

References:

https://www.medicinenet.com/low_fodmap_diet_list_of_foods_to_eat_and_avoid/article.htm

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31802437/


High FODMAP food (things to avoid / reduce)

Vegetables and Legumes

Garlic – avoid entirely if possible

Includes garlic salt, garlic powder

Onions – avoid entirely if possible

Includes onion powder, small pickled onions Try Hing / Asafoetida powder or garlic oil to substitute

Artichoke

Asparagus

Baked beans

Beetroot, fresh

Black eyed peas

Broad beans

Butter beans

Cassava

Cauliflower

Celery – greater than 5cm of stalk

Choko

Falafel

Fermented cabbage e.g. sauerkraut

Haricot beans

Kidney beans

Lima beans

Leek bulb

Mange Tout

Mixed vegetables

Mung beans

Mushrooms

Peas, sugar snap

Pickled vegetables

Red kidney beans

Savoy Cabbage

Soy beans / soya beans

Split peas

Scallions / spring onions (bulb / white part)

Shallots

Taro

Fruit – fruits can contain high fructose

Apples including pink lady and granny smith

Apricots

Avocado

Bananas, ripe

Blackberries

Blackcurrants

Boysenberry

Cherries

Currants

Custard apple

Dates

Feijoa

Figs

Goji berries

Grapefruit

Guava, unripe

Lychee

Mango

Nectarines

Paw paw, dried

Peaches

Pears

Persimmon

Pineapple, dried

Plums

Pomegranate

Prunes

Raisins

Sea buckthorns

Sultanas

Tamarillo

Tinned fruit in apple / pear juice

Watermelon

Meats, Poultry and Meat Substitutes

Chorizo

Sausages

Cereals, Grains, Breads, Biscuits/Cookies, Pasta, Nuts and Cakes

Wheat containing products such as (be sure to check labels):

Biscuits / cookies including chocolate chip cookies

Bread, wheat – over 1 slice

Breadcrumbs

Cakes

Cereal bar, wheat based

Croissants

Crumpets

Egg noodles

Muffins

Pastries

Pasta, wheat over 1/2 cup cooked

Udon noodles

Wheat bran

Wheat cereals

Wheat flour

Wheat germ

Wheat noodles

Wheat rolls

Almond meal

Amaranth flour

Barley including flour

Bran cereals

Bread:

Granary bread

Multigrain bread

Naan

Oatmeal bread

Pumpernickel bread

Roti

Sourdough with kamut

Cashews

Chestnut flour

Cous cous

Einkorn flour

Freekeh

Gnocchi

Granola bar

Muesli cereal

Muesli bar

Pistachios

Rye

Rye crispbread

Semolina

Spelt flour

OPEN

Condiments, Dips, Sweets, Sweeteners and Spreads

Agave

Caviar dip

Fructose

Fruit bar

Gravy, if it contains onion

High fructose corn syrup (HFCS)

Hummus / houmous

Honey

Jam, mixed berries

Jam, strawberry, if contains HFCS

Molasses

Pesto sauce

Quince paste

Relish / vegetable pickle

Stock cubes

Sugar free sweets containing polyols – usually ending in -ol or isomalt

Sweeteners and corresponding E number:

Inulin

Isomalt (E953 / 953)

Lactitol (E966 / 966)

Maltitol (E965 / 965)

Mannitol (E241 / 421)

Sorbitol (E420 / 420)

Xylitol (E967 / 967)

Tahini paste

Tzatziki dip

Prebiotic Foods

The follow items may be hiding in yoghurts, snack bars etc:

FOS – fructooligosaccharides

Inulin

Oligofructose

Drinks and Protein Powders

Beer – if drinking more than one bottle

Coconut water

Cordial, apple and raspberry with 50-100% real juice

Cordial, orange with 25-50% real juice

Fruit and herbal teas with apple added

Fruit juices in large quantities

Fruit juices made of apple, pear, mango

Kombucha

Malted chocolate flavored drink

Meal replacement drinks containing milk based products e.g. Ensure, Slim Fast

Orange juice in quantities over 100ml

Quinoa milk

Rum

Sodas containing High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)

Soy milk made with soy beans – commonly found in USA

Sports drinks

Tea:

Black tea with added soy milk

Chai tea, strong

Dandelion tea, strong

Fennel tea

Chamomile tea

Herbal tea, strong

Oolong tea

Wine – if drinking more than one glass

Whey protein, concentrate unless lactose free

Whey protein, hydrolyzed unless lactose free

Dairy Foods

Buttermilk

Cheese, cream

Cheese, Halmoumi

Cheese, ricotta

Cream

Custard

Gelato

Ice cream

Kefir

Milk:

Cow milk

Goat milk

Evaporated milk

Sheep’s milk

Sour cream

Yoghurt

Cooking ingredients

Carob powder


Low FODMAP food (good to eat food)

If quantities are given these are the highest amount allowed

A great source of ready made and flavorful low FODMAP sauces, oils and snacks is FODY Foods.

For a list of FODMAP free foods see the FODMAP stacking and FODMAP Free Foods page.

Vegetables and Legumes

Alfalfa

Bamboo shoots

Bean sprouts

Beetroot, canned and pickled

Black beans – 1/4 cup / 45g

Bok choy / pak choi

Broccoli, whole – 1/2 cup

Broccoli, heads only – 3/4 cup

Broccoli, stalks only – 1/2 cup

Broccolini, whole – 1/2 cup chopped

Broccolini, heads only – 1/2 cup

Broccolini, stalks only – 1 cup

Brussels sprouts – 2 sprouts

Butternut squash – 1/4 cup

Cabbage, common and red up to 1 cup

Callaloo

Carrots

Celeriac

Celery – less than 5cm of stalk

Chicory leaves

Chick peas – 1/4 cup

Chilli – if tolerable

Chives

Cho cho – 1/2 cup diced

Choy sum

Collard greens

Corn / sweet corn – if tolerable and only in small amounts – 1/2 cob

Courgette

Cucumber

Eggplant / aubergine

Fennel

Green beans

Green pepper / green bell pepper / green capsicum

Ginger

Kale

Karela

Leek leaves

Lentils – in small amounts

Lettuce:

Butter lettuce

Iceberg lettuce

Radicchio lettuce

Red coral lettuce

Rocket lettuce

Romaine/Cos lettuce

Marrow

Okra

Olives

Parsnip

Peas, snow – 5 pods

Pickled gherkins

Pickled onions, large

Potato

Pumpkin

Pumpkin, canned – 1/4 cup, 2.2 oz

Radish

Red peppers / red bell pepper / red capsicum

Scallions / spring onions (green part)

Seaweed / nori

Silverbeet / chard

Spaghetti squash

Spinach, baby

Squash

Sun-dried tomatoes – 4 pieces

Swede

Swiss chard

Sweet potato – 1/2 cup

Tomato – canned, cherry, common, roma

Tomatillos – canned

Turnip

Water chestnuts

Yam

Zucchini

Fruit

Ackee

Bananas, unripe

Bilberries

Blueberries

Breadfruit

Carambola

Cantaloupe

Cranberry – 1 tbsp

Clementine

Dragon fruit

Lingonberries

Grapes

Guava, ripe

Honeydew and Galia melons

Kiwifruit

Lemon including lemon juice

Lime including lime juice

Mandarin

Orange

Passion fruit

Paw paw

Papaya

Pineapple

Plantain, peeled

Prickly pear / nopales

Raspberry

Rhubarb

Strawberry

Tamarind

Tangelo

Meats, Poultry and Meat Substitutes

Beef

Chicken

Foie gras

Kangaroo

Lamb

Pork

Prosciutto

Quorn, mince

Turkey

Cold cuts / deli meat / cold meats such as ham and turkey breast

Processed meat – check ingredients

Fish and Seafood

Canned tuna

Fresh fish e.g.

Cod

Haddock

Plaice

Salmon

Trout

Tuna

Seafood (ensuring nothing else is added) e.g.

Crab

Lobster

Mussels

Oysters

Prawns

Shrimp

Cereals, Grains, Breads, Biscuits, Pasta, Nuts and Cakes

Wheat free breads

Gluten free breads

Bread:

Corn bread

Rice bread

Spelt sourdough bread

Potato flour bread

Wheat free or gluten free pasta

Bread, wheat – 1 slice

Almonds – max of 15

Biscuit, savoury

Biscuit, shortbread – 1 only

Brazil nuts

Bulgur / bourghal – 1/4 cup cooked, 44g serving

Buckwheat

Buckwheat flour

Buckwheat noodles

Brown rice / whole grain rice

Chestnuts

Chips, plain / potato crisps, plain

Cornflour / maize

Crispbread

Corncakes

Cornflakes – 1/2 cup

Cornflakes, gluten free

Coconut – milk, cream, flesh

Corn, creamed and canned (up to 1/3 cup)

Corn tortillas, 3 tortillas

Crackers, plain

Flax seeds / linseeds – up to 1 tbsp

Hazelnuts – max of 15

Kellogg’s (US):

Corn Flakes

Crispix

Frosted Flakes

Frosted Krispies

Rice Krispies

Macadamia nuts

Millet

Mixed nuts

Oatmeal, 1/2 cup

Oats

Oatcakes

Peanuts

Pecans – max of 15

Pine nuts – max of 15

Polenta

Popcorn

Porridge and oat based cereals

Potato flour

Pretzels

Quinoa

Pasta, wheat – up to 1/2 cup cooked

Rice:

Basmati rice

Brown rice

Rice noodles

White rice

Rice bran

Rice cakes

Rice crackers

Rice flakes

Rice flour

Seeds:

Chia seeds

Egusi seeds

Hemp seeds

Poppy seeds

Pumpkin seeds

Sesame seeds

Sunflower seeds

Starch, maize, potato and tapioca

Sorghum

Tortilla chips / corn chips

Walnuts

Condiments, Dips, Sweets, Sweeteners and Spreads

Aspartame

Acesulfame K

Almond butter

Barbecue sauce – check label carefully

Capers in vinegar

Capers, salted

Chocolate:

Dark chocolate

Milk chocolate – 3 squares

White chocolate – 3 squares

Chutney, 1 tablespoon

Dijon mustard

Erythritol (E968 / 968)

Fish sauce

Golden syrup

Glucose

Glycerol (E422 / 422)

Jam / jelly, strawberry

Ketchup (USA) – 1 sachet

Maple syrup

Marmalade

Marmite

Mayonnaise – ensuring no garlic or onion in ingredients

Miso paste

Mustard

Oyster sauce

Pesto sauce – less than 1 tbsp

Peanut butter

Rice malt syrup

Saccharine

Shrimp paste

Soy sauce

Sriracha hot chilli sauce – 1 tsp

Stevia

Sweet and sour sauce

Sucralose

Sugar – also called sucrose

Tamarind paste

Tomato sauce (outside USA) – 2 sachets, 13g

Vegemite

Vinegars:

Apple cider vinegar, 2 tbsp

Balsamic vinegar, 2 tbsp

Rice wine vinegar

Wasabi

Worcestershire sauce – has onion and garlic but very very low amount making it low FODMAP

Drinks and Protein Powders

Alcohol – is an irritant to the gut, limited intake advised:

Beer – limited to one drink

Clear spirits such as Vodka

Gin

Whiskey

Wine – limited to one drink

Coffee:

Espresso coffee, regular or decaffeinated, black

Espresso coffee, regular or decaffeinated, with up to 250ml lactose free milk

Instant coffee, regular or decaffeinated, black

Instant coffee, regular or decaffeinated, with up to 250ml lactose free milk

Drinking chocolate powder

Fruit juice, 125ml and safe fruits only

Kvass

Lemonade – in low quantities

Protein powders:

Egg protein

Pea protein – up to 20g

Rice protein

Sacha Inchi protein

Whey protein isolate

Soya milk made with soy protein

Sugar free fizzy drinks / soft drinks / soda – such as diet coke, in low quantities as aspartame and acesulfame k can be irritants

‘Sugar’ fizzy drinks / soft drinks / soda that do no contain HFCS such as lemonade, cola. Limit intake due to these drinks being generally unhealthy and can cause gut irritation

Tea:

Black tea, weak e.g. PG Tips

Chai tea, weak

Fruit and herbal tea, weak – ensure no apple added

Green tea

Peppermint tea

White tea

Water

Dairy Foods and Eggs

Butter

Cheese:

Brie

Camembert

Cheddar

Cottage – 2 tablespoons

Feta

Goat / chevre

Monterey Jack

Mozzarella

Parmesan

Ricotta – 2 tablespoons

Swiss

Dairy free chocolate pudding

Eggs

Margarine

Milk:

Almond milk

Hemp milk

Lactose free milk

Macadamia milk

Oat milk – 30 ml, enough for cereal

Rice milk – up to 200ml per sitting

Sorbet

Soy protein (avoid soya beans)

Swiss cheese

Tempeh

Tofu – drained and firm varieties

Whipped cream

Yoghurt:

Coconut yoghurt

Greek yoghurt, in small amounts

Lactose free yoghurt

Goats yoghurt

Cooking ingredients, Herbs and Spices

Herbs: Basil, Bay leaves, Cilantro, Coriander, Curry leaves, Fenugreek, Gotukala, Lemongrass, Mint, Oregano, Pandan, Parsley, Rampa, Rosemary, Sage, Tarragon, Thyme

Spices: All spice, Black pepper, Cardamon, Chilli powder (check ingredients, sometimes has garlic added), Cinnamon, Cloves, Cumin, Curry powder, Fennel seeds, Five spice, Goraka, Mustard seeds, Nutmeg, Paprika, Saffron, Star anise, Turmeric

Oils: Avocado oil, Canola oil, Coconut oil, Olive oil, Peanut oil, Rice bran oil, Sesame oil, Soybean oil, Sunflower oil, Vegetable oil

Garlic infused oil – see recipe page

Onion infused oil – see recipe page

Acai powder

Asafoetida powder – great onion substitute

Baking powder

Baking soda

Cacao powder

Cocoa powder

Cream, 2 tablespoons

Gelatine

Ghee

Icing sugar

Lard

Nutritional yeast

Salt

Soybean oil


Reference: FODMAP Food List retrieved from ibsdiets.org.



5 views

Emunah Health LLC

Fax: 1-248-659-1685

PO Box 81701 Rochester, MI 48308-1701

  • Facebook
  • LinkedIn
  • Facebook
  • YouTube